## CAPE1020 Engineering Science 1

### 30 creditsClass Size: 210

Module manager: Dr A Borissova
Email: a.borissova@leeds.ac.uk

Taught: Semester 2 (Jan to Jun) View Timetable

Year running 2022/23

This module is not approved as a discovery module

### Objectives

To offer a holistic understanding of the basic principles of mass and energy balance, engineering thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, heat transfer, chemical thermodynamics and reaction kinetics.

Learning outcomes
The completion of this course should enable students to form a solid foundation for further study of these subjects, as required in their individual programmes. Moreover, the students would gain a coherent understanding of the above mentioned basic subjects in a single course.

Skills outcomes
Students should gain a sound knowledge of the terminologies used, of the fundamental laws of engineering science and be able to perform basic level calculations in the key subject areas of mass balance, energy balance, engineering thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, heat transfer, chemical thermodynamics and reaction kinetics.

Students will apply theoretical concepts, e.g. heat transfer to computer based solutions (design).

### Syllabus

1. Engineering Thermodynamics: Conservation principle. Forms of energy. Open and closed systems. Thermodynamic properties. Temperature scales and measurement. Properties of pure substances. Ideal and real gases. First, Second and Third laws of thermodynamics. Exchange of Work and Heat; Internal Energy and Enthalpy; Reversible and irreversible processes; Carnot cycle, heat engines and thermal efficiency; Entropy; Free Energy; Ideal vs Real Behaviour; Phase Diagrams; Activity Coefficients; Behaviour of Solutions: Henry's Law, Raoult's Law, Ideal Solutions; Partial Free Energy.

2. Fluid Mechanics: Fluids, liquids and gases, fluid properties: density, pressure, compressibility, compressible and incompressible flows. Viscosity. Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids. Fluid statics: pressure measurement, manometry, calibration, electrical transducers. Basic fluid flow: Dimensionless numbers; Reynolds number. Laminar and turbulent flows. Concept of boundary layer. Momentum equation. Jets. Frictionless flow. Bernoulli's equation. Turbulent Flow: Velocity profiles. Power laws. Energy losses and additions: wall friction, friction factor; enlargement (expansion) losses; sudden enlargement, exit losses; gradual enlargement. Pipe and tube inlet and outlet losses, bend losses.

3. Mechanisms of Heat Transfer: Conduction, convection, radiation. Conduction; conduction through a plane wall, thermal resistance in series, steady-state conduction in composite walls, cylinders and spheres. Convection: natural and forced convection, hydrodynamic and thermal boundary layers, laminar and turbulent flow, individual and overall coefficients of heat transfer. Radiation: radiation intensity, blackbody radiation, surface absorption, reflection and transmission.

4. Mass Balances: Units and unit conversion. Processes and process variables. Ideal mixtures and calculation of mole fractions. Fundamentals of mass balances. Steady and unsteady state processes. Black box approach and mass balance techniques. Degree-of-freedom Analysis. Block and process flow diagrams (PFD) and flow sheets. Mass balance diagrams and tables. Mass balances for non-reacting systems. Overall and component balances. Recycling and by-pass calculations for operations with no chemical reaction.

5. Energy Balances: Principles of energy balances for processes involving changes in temperature, pressure, phase and mixing for non-reactive systems. Latent heat, steam tables; humid heat (psychrometric chart); heats of solution and mixing. Energy balances applied to non-reactive systems. Mass and Energy Continuity Equation. Integrated mass & energy balances.

6. Chemical Thermodynamics and Kinetics: Acids and Bases: concepts of strong/weak-acid/base, water and pH, acid-base reactions. Chemical Thermodynamics- Hess's Law. Chemical Potential. Chemical Equilibria: Gibbs free energy, why and where do reactions reach equilibrium. Electrochemistry principles: electrode potentials, half cells, EMF, Nernst equation. Basic concepts of reaction rate, influence of temperature and concentration, integrated rate laws, mechanism, Arrhenius equation.

### Teaching methods

 Delivery type Number Length hours Student hours Class tests, exams and assessment 2 1.00 2.00 Lecture 44 1.00 44.00 Practical 1 2.00 2.00 Tutorial 11 2.00 22.00 Private study hours 230.00 Total Contact hours 70.00 Total hours (100hr per 10 credits) 300.00

### Private study

Revision of lecture notes for formative assessments and the examinations.

### Opportunities for Formative Feedback

Students' understanding of the material taught will be tested using in-class tests.

### Methods of assessment

Coursework
 Assessment type Notes % of formal assessment Computer Exercise TSC Assignment 10.00 In-course Assessment Test 15.00 In-course Assessment Test 15.00 Total percentage (Assessment Coursework) 40.00

Normally resits will be assessed by the same methodology as the first attempt, unless otherwise stated

Exams
 Exam type Exam duration % of formal assessment Unseen exam 3 hr 60.00 Total percentage (Assessment Exams) 60.00

Normally resits will be assessed by the same methodology as the first attempt, unless otherwise stated