# 2023/24 Undergraduate Module Catalogue

## MECH1215 Thermofluids 1

### 20 creditsClass Size: 350

**Module manager:** Professor R Barker**Email:** R.J.Barker@leeds.ac.uk

**Taught:** Semesters 1 & 2 (Sep to Jun) View Timetable

**Year running** 2023/24

Module replaces

MECH 1210 Thermodynamics**This module is not approved as a discovery module**

### Objectives

On completion of this module, students should be able to:1. understand the fundamental concepts of fluid statics and fluid flow, with consideration of both ideal (inviscid) and real (viscous) flow;

2. compute basic parameters for hydrostatic fluid problems, including forces on submerged bodies;

3. analyse ideal fluid flow in one dimension using the continuum concepts of conservation of mass, momentum and energy;

4. identify appropriate methodologies for modelling flows using non-dimensional parameters;

5. understand the basic concepts of engineering thermodynamics of real and perfect gases, and of heat transfer;

6. apply elementary thermodynamic cycle analysis to understand the effects of the major operating parameters controlling the performance of thermodynamic processes.

**Learning outcomes**

On completion of this module, students will have learnt to:

1. describe the fundamental concepts of fluid statics and fluid flow, with reference to both ideal (inviscid) and real (viscous) flow;

2. analyse hydrostatic fluid problems, including systems relating to forces on submerged bodies;

3. analyse ideal fluid flow in one dimension using the continuum concepts of conservation of mass, momentum and energy;

4. identify appropriate methodologies for modelling flows using non-dimensional parameters;

5. Apply the basic concepts of engineering thermodynamics of real and perfect gases, and of heat transfer to engineering problems.

6. Apply elementary thermodynamic cycle analysis to understand the effects of the major operating parameters controlling the performance of thermodynamic processes.

Upon successful completion of this module the following UK-SPEC learning outcome descriptors are satisfied:

A comprehensive knowledge and understanding of the scientific principles and methodology necessary to underpin their education in their engineering discipline, and an understanding and know-how of the scientific principles of related disciplines, to enable appreciation of the scientific and engineering context, and to support their understanding of relevant historical, current and future developments and technologies (SM1m)

Understanding of engineering principles and the ability to apply them to undertake critical analysis of key engineering processes (EA1m)

Ability to identify, classify and describe the performance of systems and components through the use of analytical methods and modelling techniques (EA2)

Ability to apply relevant practical and laboratory skills (P3)

Understanding of the use of technical literature and other information sources (P4)

Apply their skills in problem solving, communication, information retrieval, working with others and the effective use of general IT facilities (G1).

**Skills outcomes**

Written communication, analysis, synthesis, criticality and argument, problem solving, interpretation, laboratory skills and numeracy.

### Syllabus

The syllabus below splits the material into that traditionally found in thermodynamics texts and in fluid mechanics texts. However, where appropriate material will be delivered within units that draw from a number of elements of the syllabus.

0. Introduction

Scope of thermodynamics. Historical development. Current energy resources and their availability. Alternative resources. The thermodynamic system. Thermodynamic state and properties. Thermodynamic processes. Energy, heat (basic conduction/convection/radiation), thermodynamic definition of work and power.

1. The First Law of Thermodynamics

1.1. Introduction: cyclic systems

1.2. Closed systems, internal energy, displacement work

1.3. Open systems, flow work, enthalpy.

2. Property Relationships

2.1. Phases of matter of a pure substance, tabulated property data for condensable fluids (eg steam)

2.2. Perfect gas property relationships, equation of state for ideal gas, internal energy and constant volume specific heat enthalpy and constant pressure specific heat, ratio of specific heats.

3. Thermodynamic Process Path Definition

3.1. Polytropic process

3.2. Special cases: constant volume (isochoric), constant pressure (isobaric), constant temperature (isothermal) process for an ideal gas.

4. The Second Law of Thermodynamics

4.1. Reversibility, statement of the Second Law, perpetual motion of the second kind

4.2. Heat engine performance, reversible heat engines, thermodynamic temperature scale, temperature and heat engine performance

4.3 The Carnot cycle

4.4. Entropy, derivation and relationship to heat transferred in reversible processes.

4.5. Entropy property relationships, T-s, diagram and tables for real fluids, perfect gas relationships, the isentropic process for perfect gas, work done in a reversible steady flow process.

5.0 The Air-standard Otto Cycle

5.1 Processes making up the cycle

5.2 Cycle thermal efficiency

5.3 Compression/Expansion ratio and cycle efficiency

5.4 Deviation of real spark ignition engine cycle from ideal otto cycle.

6. Introduction to fluid mechanics and applications;Scope of fluid mechanics; application areas

7. Properties of fluids

7.1 Physical characteristics

7.2 Molecular structure of liquids

7.3 Fluids as a continuum

8. Hydrostatic pressure and manometry

8.1 Definition of pressure

8.2 Calculation of hydrostatic pressure

8.3 Use of manometers for measuring pressure (including atmospheric pressure)

8.4 Other common pressure measurement devices.

9. Forces on submerged surfaces and bodies

9.1 Centre of pressure

9.2 Calculation of total force acting on surfaces of rectangular section using integration approach

9.3 Calculation of total force using 2nd moment of area.

10. Introduction to ideal fluid flow

10.1 Streamline flow

10.2 Sources of energy loss within flow.

11. Conservation (with application to incompressible flows) of:

11.1 Mass

11.2 Energy - Bernoulli's equation (including link to 1st law of thermodynamics)

11.3 Momentum - forces

11.4 Application of conservation laws to flow measurement.

12. Dimensional analysis

12.1 Geometric similarity

12.2 Dimensional homogeneity

12.3 Typical non-dimensional groups within fluid mechanics

12.4 Buckingham Pi theory.

### Teaching methods

Delivery type | Number | Length hours | Student hours |

Class tests, exams and assessment | 1 | 2.00 | 2.00 |

Lecture | 40 | 1.00 | 40.00 |

Practical | 4 | 2.00 | 8.00 |

Seminar | 4 | 1.00 | 4.00 |

Tutorial | 4 | 1.00 | 4.00 |

Private study hours | 142.00 | ||

Total Contact hours | 58.00 | ||

Total hours (100hr per 10 credits) | 200.00 |

### Private study

Reinforcement of lectures, solving example sheet problems, preparing lab reports and study for examination.### Opportunities for Formative Feedback

Feedback session after 1st and 2nd online activity (i.e. the restructured lab sessions)### Methods of assessment

**Coursework**

Assessment type | Notes | % of formal assessment |

Practical | 2 summative practical sessions | 40.00 |

Total percentage (Assessment Coursework) | 40.00 |

Coursework marks carried forward and 60% resit exam OR 100% exam

**Exams**

Exam type | Exam duration | % of formal assessment |

Unseen exam | 2 hr | 60.00 |

Total percentage (Assessment Exams) | 60.00 |

Normally resits will be assessed by the same methodology as the first attempt, unless otherwise stated

### Reading list

The reading list is available from the Library websiteLast updated: 23/06/2023

## Browse Other Catalogues

- Undergraduate module catalogue
- Taught Postgraduate module catalogue
- Undergraduate programme catalogue
- Taught Postgraduate programme catalogue

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